One of the threads that holds many generations of the Queen’s Own Rifles together is a literal one: the tailoring of Walter Beauchamp. This tailor shop – founded in 1908 as “Beauchamp and How” – has been at the heart of Toronto’s development for over 100 years. It has clothed soldiers for over a century – including the Queen’s Own since the Great War – Toronto Railway Company and TTC operators, the fire department, untold Prime Ministers, mayors and politicians, prominent celebrities from Colonel Sanders to Gordon Lightfoot and, most importantly, Torontonians of every walk of life. Look in the closet of any long-time Toronto family and you are bound to find a Walter Beauchamp suit.
I am currently researching and writing a book on the history of Beauchamp’s and so a visit to the Queen’s Own museum was my first stop while working on the chapter dedicated to military tailoring.
With the help of Major John Stephens and Master Corporal Graham Humphrey I was able to find a number of garments tailored by Beauchamp’s over the last century in the Queen’s Own museum archives. Also thanks to their help I was able to find the stories of the soldiers that wore the garments.
This Mess Kit was tailored by Beauchamp & How and the tag in the breast pocket reads, “Lt. C.O. Dalton, October 18, 1931.” Colonel Charles Osborne Dalton enlisted as a cadet at age fifteen with the Queen’s Own Rifles. He remained with his Regiment the rest of his military career, retiring in 1975. Rising through the ranks during World War II, Major Dalton was tasked with helping to lead D-Day on June 6, 1944, the largest seaborne invasion in military history. As commander of “B” company, Major Dalton landed on the beaches of Bernieres-sur-Mer, France, with 120 of his men. I am honoured to include his story in our book.
A garment that has clearly seen better days – but is all the more interesting for it – this Dress Tunic was made for Lt. Col. I.M. Macdonell on March 15, 1934 by Beauchamp’s. Shortly after it was made, in May of 1939, and as the Commanding Officer of the Queen’s Own Rifles, Lt. Col. Macdonell was presented to His Majesty King George VI during the Royal Visit to Toronto.
Despite an exhaustive search, we could not find any garments in the museum tailored for Sir Henry Pellatt, commander of the Queen’s Own from 1901 to 1920 and the man behind Casa Loma. Considering how many garments Beauchamp’s made for the regiment, it seems likely at least one was made for Sir Henry, but the search continues. Imagine my excitement, then, when Master Corporal Humphrey looked in the pocket of this tunic to find the Beauchamp and How name alongside that of “Lt. Col. Reginald Pellatt,” Sir Henry’s son and also Commanding Officer of the Queen’s Own.
My work and research will continue for the next several months as I try to tell the story of Toronto, Canada and our Armed Forces seen through the shop windows of our country’s oldest tailoring houses. The book is scheduled to be published in the Fall of 2017.
The practices throughout the history of the Regiment come and go, and over time you see reference to “Lance” rank but only used in the Regiment as an Acting Corporal. During the Second World War you see the use of Lance Corporal on parade states and promotion list but you will not see a photo of the wearing of a one chevron on the uniforms of any QOR Rifleman. Simply they just wore the rank of Corporal since it is an Acting Corporal rank in a Rifle Regiment. Below is a write up of a Memo that was written for the Regiment in 1942 but rewritten in 1954.
MEMO: RE: LANCE CORPORALS
ARMY HISTORICAL RESEARCH, VOLUME V, 1926
This book contains quite a lengthy and comprehensive article entitled “The Lancespessade and the History of Lance Rank” in the British Army, and covers a period of several hundred years, giving quotations from many authoritative sources on the subject.
The following are several quotations taken from the article:
“The term lance as a qualifying prefix to non-commissioned ranks, is peculiar to the British Army today, and is an interesting link with that period which the Military Organization of the Middle Ages was being transferred into that which, in its essentials, is still current: that is to say, with the end of the 15th, and the beginning of the 16th centuries. The word is derived from the italian lancia spezzata, literally a broken or shattered lance, Lance Corporal usually defined as the title of that rank which was granted to the lowest officer that “hath any commandment” and “signifies Deputie Corporal.”
“By the beginning of the 17th century, in England at least, the Lancespessade had become and Infantryman only, and almost exactly the equivalent of the Lance Corporal of present day.”
“Lance the Corporal of the Cavalry unit is to supply and do all duties of the Corporals and Lancespessades of the Foote.” The definition of a Lancespessade is given as “he that commands over ten soldiers, the lowest officer in a foot company.”
The article makes it quite clear that the rank of Lance Corporal was peculiar to the Infantry alone in the British Army, until long after the organization of Rifle Regiments, and it contains no reference to this rank ever having been introduced into Rifle Regiments.
REGULATIONS FOR RIFLE CORPS.
These Regulations were originally issued in 1800, by Colonel Coote Manningham, who is usually referred to as the originator of rifle regiments, and has become the first Commanding Officer of the Rifle Corps, now the Rifle Brigade. They are reprinted in a book bearing the same title, published in 1890, with certain amendments added.
Article 11 dealing with the Formation of the Corps, in so far as it relates to Sergeants and Corporals states as follows:
“The four Sergeants are to command a half platoon or squad each. The senior Corporal of each company is to act as Sergeant in the first squad.
The four Corporals are to be divided to the four half platoons. One soldier of peculiar merit is to act in each company as Corporals, and to belong to the third squad.
The Acting Sergeant and Acting Corporal are to be the only non-commissioned officers transferable from squad to squad.
In every half platoon one soldier of merit will be selected and upon him the charge of the squad devolves in the absence of both non-commissioned officers of it. As from these four Chosen Men (As they are called) all Corporals and Acting Corporals are to be appointed, the best men alone are to be selected for this distinction.
The graduation of rank and responsibility, from the Colonel of the Regiment to the Chosen Man of a squad, has how been detailed, and on no instance to be varied by whatever officer may command it.”
STANDING ORDERS OF THE RIFLE BRIGADE
These Standing Orders issued in 1911, make no mention of Lance rank, wither in the text or in the various sample forms of parade states, reports, etc., in the back of the book. Acting Corporals are shown.
Article 11 – Formation of the Regiment, section 18 states:
“Corporals and Acting Corporals are responsible to the Sergeants of their respective sections.”
A copy of the Standing orders referred to above was received by me from the O.C. The Rifle Brigade in 1925, and he states at that time that they were the last published Standing Orders, and that no material changes or amendments had been made since date of issue.
THE KING’S ROYAL RIFLE CORPS
In several volumes of the above covering a period of from 1820 up to some time in the 1890’s. There are a number of parade states, casualty lists, awards of various kinds such as good conduct badges, marksmen’s badges, etc., I could not find in these volumes any reference to Lance rank, but Acting Corporals are mentioned.
THE QUEEN’S OWN RIFLES OF CANADA
RE: LANCE RANK
Regimental Orders are complete from the first R.O. Issued in 1860 until the present date, and are on file in the records of the Regiment.
From the first R.O. Issued in April 26, 1860 until 1866, there is no mention of Lance rank in any form whatever. There were, however, appointments made as Acting Corporals.
R.O. May 19, 1865 states “The proper regulation chevrons for NCO’s of the QOR are as follows and will be worn on both arms:
For Corporals – 2 black stripes on a red ground.”
There is no mention of Lance Corporals, or the chevrons that they would wear.
In R.O. January 22, 1866, the promotion of a private to the rank of Lance Corporal appears for the first time. Further promotions to that rank appear in subsequent orders up to the year 1874, when they cease, and from that year on appointments to be Acting Corporals appear again, and continue to the present time. There has not been an appointment to Lance rank since 1874, a period of 68 years.
No R.O. Appears in 1865, 1866 or any subsequent year authorizing Lance rank, nor does any R.O. Appear in 1874 or subsequent years abolishing them.
NOMINAL ROLLS FOR ANNUAL MUSTER
The nominal rolls of all companies and units of the Regiment for the Annual Muster parade each year are complete from 1860 until the present time, and are on file in the records.
On these Muster Rolls Acting Corporals appear from 1860 until 1865 inclusive. In the years 1866 to 1874 Lance Corporals appear, and commencing with the year 1875 until the present time Acting Corporals are shown, but no Lance Corporals.
REGIMENTAL STANDING ORDERS
Regimental Standing Orders were issued only in the years 1862, 1872, 1880, 1883, and 1925. Copies of all these are on file in the records.
There is no mention in any of these Standing Orders of Lance rank, not even in those issued in 1872, a year in which some Lance Corporals existed in the Regiment. The lowest rank mentioned is that or Corporal, and the lowest rank badges provided for this is of Corporal.
Lance rank originated in the Foot Regiments, later Infantry, of the British Army, and was peculiar to that branch of the service for several hundred years. During the 19th century it was adopted by some other red-coated regiments of other branches of the service, but not by Rifle Regiments.
Lance rank was not in force in The Rifle Brigade in 1925, as will be seen by their Standing Orders issued in 1911, and the statement of the [Officer Commanding] that unit in 1925, and it is extremely unlikely that it now exists in that regiment.
Lance rank was not in force in The King’s Royal Rifle Corps as will be seen from their chronicle up to the South African War.
The Queen’s Own Rifles, when authorized as a rifle regiment, on organization in 1860, undoubtedly adopted the “Regulations for Rifle Corps” as was practised at the time by The Rifle Brigade and The King’s Royal Rifle Corps.
The deviation from Regulations for Rifle Corps and the Standing orders of the Regiment, in The Queen’s Own Rifles from 1866 to 1874 is hard to account for now.
It is possible that the Officer Commanding in 1866, through carelessness or otherwise, permitted this unauthorized deviation from the Regulations to creep in. It is quite clear, however, that he did not provide for the change in Regimental Orders, nor did he change the Standing Orders to provide for it.
By 1872, another Officer Commanding was in command of the Regiment. He revised Standing Orders in 1872, but again no provision was made for Lance rank.
By 1874, the late General Sir William Otter has assumed Command of the Regiment, and was, as is well known, a great stickler for regulations of the service and tradition. It is quite evident that it was he who abolished the unauthorized Lance rank in the Regiment no doubt to conform with the standing Orders of the Regiment which were based upon the “Regulations for Rifle Corps.”
He did not issue an order abolishing Lance rank, probably because there had never been a regimental order authorizing it, but just let it fade out.
With the exception, therefore, of the short period 1866-1874, when Lance rank was entirely unauthorized in The Queen’s Own Rifles, it has not existed in the Regiment. Nor has there been at any time during the Regiment’s 82 years of existence, and order authorizing it in the Regimental Standing orders.
It is quite clear from the foregoing, that The Queen’s Own Rifles, in having Acting Corporals instead of lance Corporals, is following not only a Regimental custom, but a Rifle custom which was duly authorized on the organization of Rifle regiments in the British Service, and is still the practice in two of the best known Rifle regiments in the British Army.
I hope you enjoyed this article as it shows reflection into the history and traditions of The Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada and our sister regiment’s in England. Throughout my research and studying of photos of The Queen’s Own Rifles throughout the history I have only found one photo (pictured below) that shows the wearing of one chevron and this photo was taken when the Regiment was deployed to Korea in 1955. After the above article was written you will see in photos the addition of a QOR Collar Dog above the Corporal Chevron (pictured below) which would be the present “Master Corporal” or meaning the Section Commander.
Here is a visual of what a Rifleman would have looked like on D-Day.
Field Service Marching Order with respirator slung. Gas cape rolled on Belt. Veil camouflage around neck. Shell dressing under netting of helmet. Emergency rations in hip pocket.
A.V. Battle dress will be worn, patches, (Canada & QOR), sewn on, when other collected.
The A.V. Battle dress will be worn for a minimum of 48 hrs, as soon as possible. If any effects on body are noticed, they will be reported immediately.
Holdall (towel, soap, razor, etc.)
Knife, fork and spoon
24 hour rations
4 x 2
Pair of socks
Boots (anklets if required)
Boot brush, dubbin & polish
3 pairs socks
Greatcoat packed on outside of pack, held on by kicking straps
Respirator of Assault marching personnel only attached to pack.
G-1018 blanket, folded as for kit layout rolled in ground sheet, strongly lied and properly labelled. (This makes a roll about 2 ½ feet long.)
All packs, Haversacks, Greatcoats (inside belt), ground sheet, to be marked with Rank, Name, Number and Coy mark.
Assault troops are all that land on “D” day.
1 suit of denim to be collected at a later date.
Serge suit for all assault personnel, both riding & marching, less those with coys, will be turned in when notified to coy stores. They will be marked as laid down. They will be returned after “D” day.
Serge suit for those on follow up vehicles will be put in their Blanket rolls.
Here are some Pre Invasion photos from our Archives:
To see the War Diaries for Pre and Invasion visit the link below
Interested how the Enlisted men of the Regiment looked during the trip to England in 1910? Well we have the answer for you!
1910 Prior to the departure of the QOR contingent to England Sir Henry Pellatt outfitted the Regiment in a Khaki wool uniform. The construction of this tunic had a stiff rifle green collar, seven small silver buttons that had a blacken tinge to them, two on the upper pockets yet none on the bottom slack pockets and rifle green epaulettes that have brass/silver QOR title. The use of normal QOR rank with Black Braid on Red was not used but the regular White braid on Khaki was as well as the standard QOR collar dogs on the collar. 1905 model Khaki high waisted pants were worn with Puttees wrapped around the calf and ankles. At this time Oliver Pattern Webbing was used as well the Canadian made Ross Rifle 1905 model and bayonet. This was in use by the Regiment up until the out break of world war one which saw the uniforms used until Valcartier and replaced before shipping to England with the 3rd Battalion CEF.
The headdress of the time was the new model 1905 Khaki Service dress peaked cap . The overall construction of the cap is made out of a Khaki Wool including the peak. As with Rifle Regiment tradition a Wool Green band was added around the upper part of the base of the headdress. The Regimental Cap Badge would be fixed centre of the Peaked cap.